Our country is now in a stage of accelerated industrialization and urbanization, with the development of the economy and the improvement of people’s living standards. The demand for energy and mineral resources is increasing day by day, the gap is widening, and the contradiction between supply and demand will further intensify. As global competition intensifies and national economic interests compete, the economic, political and military costs of many of my country’s imported energy and mineral resources continue to increase. Resource monopoly, control and conflicts are increasing day by day, and risks are increasing. On August 17, 2009, Li Ke, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and Vice Premier of the State Council, paid a special visit to the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences and held a discussion with academicians. He emphasized that we must remain rooted in the country and enhance the guarantee capabilities of domestic energy and mineral resources. Iron ore is a bulk mineral resource needed for my country’s industrialization and urbanization. Whether it can be based in China and ensure the demand for iron ore by my country’s steel industry is an urgent question that needs to be answered. Previous people have made some comments on the current development and use of iron ore resources in my country, the supply and demand situation and countermeasures. This article intends to analyze the feasibility of being based in China to ensure my country’s demand for iron ore resources from the aspects of the metallogenic potential (ore-forming conditions) of my country’s iron ore, identified iron ore resource reserves, and prospecting potential.
1. Mineralization conditions of iron ore in my country
my country has a vast territory and has experienced many periods of intense structural movements, magma flows and hydrothermal events during its long geological history. The conditions for iron ore mineralization are very favorable. The currently discovered iron deposits are widely distributed, but are relatively concentrated in more than 10 key metallogenic zones, with mineralization ages ranging from the Archaic to the Mesozoic and Cenozoic.
(1) Accumulated metamorphic iron ore
Accumulation metamorphic iron ore, also known as metamorphic accumulation iron ore, is composed of accumulation or volcanic accumulation iron ore that has been transformed by regional metamorphosis or mixed lithification effects. The mineralization age is generally the Precambrian, and the iron content is generally in Between 20% and 40%, the SiO2 content is between 43% and 56%, with a significant strip structure.
Precambrian strata are widely distributed in my country. The Archaean and Paleoproterozoic transformation structures closely related to iron ore are widely distributed in the North China Craton. Anshan-style iron ore concentration areas such as the Anben area in Liaoning, the Jidong area in Hebei, the Wutai-Luliang area in Shanxi, and the central area in Inner Mongolia have been produced; followed by the southern margin of the Yangtze Craton (Xinyu-style iron ore) and the Qinling orogenic belt ( Yudongzi type iron deposit), Qilian orogenic belt (Jingtieshan type iron deposit) and East Tianshan area (Tianhu type iron deposit). Recently, important discoveries have also been made in the Qimantage area of Xinjiang.
(2) Magmatic iron ore
Magmatic iron deposits are related to iron-based basic and ultrabasic magma intrusion activities. Characterized by iron deposits rich in vanadium and investment casting titanium, it is also called vanadium-titanium magnetite. Iron ores are produced in rock bodies and are distributed in or near deep fault zones on the edges of different arching areas. The mineralization age is mainly Paleozoic and Proterozoic.
Magmatic activity related to magmatic iron deposits in my country is mainly distributed in the Panxi area and the Damiao area in Chengde, Hebei. In addition, magmatic iron deposits are also scattered in other regions across the country, such as the Bijiggou iron deposit and Yindongshan iron deposit in the Qinling orogenic belt, the Weiya iron deposit in the East Tianshan Mountains, the Xialan iron deposit in Guangdong, and the Xinglonggou iron deposit in Heilongjiang. Iron ore deposits, Xiaojiagou iron ore deposits in Shandong, etc.
(3) Skarn type iron ore
Skarn-type iron ore is also called contact-informing iron ore. It is related to the contact-informing effect of medium and acidic (including basic or alkaline) shallow intrusions and carbonate rocks, and is closely related to skarn. cause contact. Iron ore is produced in or adjacent to the contact zone between rock mass and surrounding rock. It is generally lens-shaped, layer-like, vein-shaped or irregular in shape. The mineralization age is mainly Mesozoic, and the ore grade is generally rich.
The medium-acidic magma activity in my country is intense, especially in the Mesozoic Era; since the Paleozoic Era, marine accumulation carbonate rocks have been widely distributed. Therefore, the mineralization conditions of skarn-type iron ore are very favorable, and it is the main source of rich iron ore in my country, forming many skarn-type iron ore concentration areas. For example, mining areas such as Handan, Laiwu, Daye, and Linfen in eastern my country. In addition, important skarn-type iron deposits are also scattered in other areas of my country, such as Cuihongshan in Heilongjiang, Huanggang in Inner Mongolia, Lizhu in Zhejiang, Lianping Dading in Guangdong, Mulonggou in Shaanxi, Kendekeke in Qinghai, Nixiong in Tibet, etc. iron ore deposits.
(4) Volcanic iron ore
Volcanic iron deposits are related to sodium-rich neutral (basic or acidic) volcanic-intrusive activities. Most of them are accompanied by significant and extensive sodium deposition and other alterations, and rich ores account for a larger proportion. feature.
The geological conditions for the formation of volcanic rock-type iron deposits in my country are favorable, and there are many iron ores formed. It can be divided into two subcategories according to the different volcanic eruption-intrusion environments: ① Continental volcanic iron deposits are mainly distributed in the Ningwu-Lucong area, and the mineralization age is the Mesozoic Era. In addition, the Jiaduoling Iron Mine in Tibet and the Liangzi Iron Mine in Sichuan Mine also fall into this category. ② Marine volcanic iron deposits are mainly distributed in Dahongshan, Yunnan, Altay, Xinjiang, East Tianshan and other areas. The mineralization age is the Paleozoic and Proterozoic, represented by Dahongshan, Yunnan, Mengku, Xinjiang and other iron deposits.
(5) Accumulated iron ore
The geological conditions for accumulation-type iron deposits in my country are favorable and the mineralization ages are long, especially in the south. However, this type of iron ore is currently classified as difficult to be smelted and has little industrial use. Accumulation-type iron ore can be divided into two sub-categories: marine accumulation-type iron ore and lacustrine accumulation-type iron ore according to different geological environments and paleogeographic conditions.
(6) Weathering and leaching iron ore
Due to the lack of a long-term stable craton environment in my country, the surface weathering time is short and the effects are incomplete. Therefore, the weathered leaching iron ores are mostly small and medium-sized, mainly distributed in the south, with little industrial significance, but they are useful for predicting deep hidden deposits. Indicate meaning.
It can be seen from the above. my country’s depository metamorphic, magmatic, skarn and volcanic rock type iron deposits have excellent mineralization geological conditions and great prospecting potential. Although depository iron deposits have good mineralization conditions, they are not currently the focus of prospecting: instead, they form weathering The geological conditions of leach iron ore are unfavorable and lack the supergene weathering conditions that form hematite rich deposits in foreign countries.
2. The fundamental characteristics of iron ore resources have been identified
my country is rich in iron ore resources, and its identified resource reserves rank fifth in the world after Brazil, Australia, Ukraine, and Russia. According to the 2008 “National Mineral Resources Reserves Report” of the Ministry of Land and Resources, by the end of 2008, my country’s identified resource reserves (iron ore volume) were 623.78×108t.
my country’s iron ore resources have the following fundamental characteristics:
(1) Widely distributed and relatively concentrated. my country’s iron ore resources are widely distributed, and iron ore resource reserves have been proven in 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) across the country. However, the identified resource reserves of these iron ores are mainly concentrated in Liaoning (124.38×108t, the identified resource reserves as of the end of 2008, the same below), Sichuan (98.30×108t) and Hebei (73.94×108t), and the three together account for 47.55% of the national total; if Anhui, Shanxi, Yunnan, Inner Mongolia, Shandong, and Hubei are added, 9 provinces (regions) account for more than 80% of the national total.
(2) Complete types and outstanding features. Six internationally known types of iron ore deposits are now found in my country. More than 85% of foreign iron ore resources come from accumulation and transformation type. The identified resource reserves of accumulated metamorphic iron ore in my country account for 48% of the total, followed by magmatic type (accounting for 16%), skarn type (accounting for 15%) and volcanic rock type (accounting for 8%). The main source of ore, accumulation type (accounting for 12%) iron ore is a type that is difficult to be smelted and smelted, while weathering and leaching type iron ore is very rare, accounting for only about 1%.
(3) There are a large number of mining areas, and the resource reserves of large mining areas dominate. There are a lot of iron ores in our country. By the end of 2008, there were 3,381 proven iron ore areas across the country. Although large-scale iron ore areas only account for 4% of the identified number, their identified resource reserves account for 66% of the total, while the identified resource reserves of small-scale iron ore areas, which account for 78% of the number of mining areas, only account for 6% of the total.
(4) The grade is low and most of the ores are easy to select. The grade of my country’s iron ore resources is generally low, with the average grade being mainly 30% to 35%. However, most of my country’s iron ores are easy to be separated. The cumulative amount of magnetite ore is the largest, accounting for 64%, followed by vanadium-titanium magnetite ore, accounting for 18%. These two types of iron ore are easy to be separated by magnetic methods. Ore calculations account for 82%.
(5) The components are complex and have great comprehensive use value. In addition to iron, swiss machining titanium and vanadium are used as the main components of my country’s magmatic iron ores. There are also various components such as phosphorus, chromium, nickel, copper, platinum group elements, and scandium that can be used comprehensively: silica The symbiotic components of rock-type iron ore include copper, lead, zinc, tungsten, tin, molybdenum, cobalt, gold and other components that can be used comprehensively; the symbiotic components of volcanic rock-type iron ore include copper, gold, rare earth elements and other components that can be used comprehensively.
In summary, it can be seen that although my country’s iron ore resources are of low grade. However, it is mainly iron ore that is easy to mine and select, and has a variety of components that can be used comprehensively to add added value.
3. Analysis of iron ore prospecting potential
In the 1980s, my country launched a forecast of total iron ore resources. It is believed that the potential of the resources to be identified is huge. At the National Iron Ore Exploration Seminar held in Tianjin in 2008 (this was the first national conference held around iron ore research and exploration since the end of the National Iron Ore Conference in the 1970s), participating experts discussed Several years of exploration practice generally believe that my country’s iron ore still has great prospecting prospects. Among them, Anshan-style accumulation-metamorphic iron deposits have the greatest prospecting potential. Panzhihua type magmatic type vanadium titanium magnetite, Daye type, Handan Xing type skarn type iron ore, volcanic rock type iron ore, etc.
my country’s iron ore prospecting potential is mainly reflected in the following aspects:
(1) The exploration level of the discovered mineral lands is not high. There are many iron ore spots and mineralization spots that need further exploration and evaluation, and it is expected to obtain a batch of identified resource reserves. 8,896 iron ore deposits (sites) have been discovered in my country (the data comes from Zhang Hongtao’s speech at the 2008 Tianjin Iron Ore Prospecting and Exploration Seminar). By the end of 2008, my country had 3,381 iron ore producing areas that had reached the level of exploration, detailed survey and general survey, and the identified resource reserves (iron ore amount) were 623.78×108t (according to the 2008 “National Mineral Resources Reserve Report” of the Ministry of Land and Resources 》). More than 5,000 other iron ore (chemical) sites whose operating level is lower than that of the census need to be further worked to improve the operating level. Some iron ore (chemical) sites are expected to expand their scale and obtain a batch of identified resource reserves. Many large and ultra-large iron ore deposits were discovered through further operations on iron ore (chemical) sites.
(2) Although many iron ore deposits have been discovered in eastern my country, the exploration depth is not large. The iron ore prospecting potential in the deep and edge parts of the mining area is great. In the past, limited by exploration technology, the exploration depth of my country’s iron ore mines was generally shallow. The maximum burial depth of primary iron ore bodies in 1,685 iron ore areas was calculated, generally ranging from 0 to 800m, with an average of 230m. Although many iron ore deposits have been discovered in eastern and central-eastern my country, the exploration depth is generally shallow. Recently, prospecting in the deep and edge parts of some known deposits has been continuously carried out: for example, new ore bodies were discovered in the depths of the Daye Iron Mine, with an additional amount of 2300×104t of iron ore; and large ore bodies were newly discovered in the depths of the Gongchangling mining area in Liaoning. The newly added amount of iron ore is 7000×104t, of which 5000×104t is rich ore; the Yanyanshan Iron Mine added 5000×104t of iron ore in 2008; the two mining areas of Erma and Xingshan in Hebei Province added a total of 333 types of iron ore. Resource amount 1.7×108t: The Macheng Iron Mine in Luannan County discovered in 2005 has now obtained resource reserves (iron ore) of 12×108t after detailed investigation, and there is still 4×108t resource potential to be further worked: Shilu Iron Mine replacement Resource exploration found 0.4×108t of rich iron ore with an average grade of about 45%. Although the geological operations in central and eastern my country are relatively high, in recent years under the guidance of new mineralization theories. Prospecting for minerals in the blank area was a breakthrough. For example, the Anhui Nihe terrestrial volcanic iron deposit was newly discovered. The iron ore resources are estimated to exceed 1×108t, and the average grade of all iron reaches 40%: a newly discovered accumulation metamorphic iron deposit in Jining, Shandong. The predicted resource amount is more than 30×108t; the Liaoning Qiaotou Iron Mine predicts the resource amount can reach 30×108t; Henan Liancun Iron Mine has promising prospects: Shanxi Huyanqingshan Iron Ore Deposit is expected to reach large-scale scale.
(3) The degree of geological operations in the western region of my country is low, the mineralization conditions are favorable, and the prospecting potential is large. From the 1950s to the beginning of the 21st century, regional aerial surveys with the primary purpose of searching for iron ore basically covered the mainland territory. Among them, the aeromagnetic measurements in the eastern region are mainly 1:50,000, followed by 1:200,000; the northern part of the west has a higher level of aeromagnetic measurements, mainly 1:50,000 and 1:100,000, while the southern part of the west has (Qinghai-Tibet Plateau) Mainly 1:500,000 and 1:1 million, to a lesser extent. The degree of iron ore exploration is high in the east, followed by the northern part of the west, while most areas in the west have very low or blank exploration levels. Correspondingly, the identified iron ore resource reserves in the northwest region, which accounts for more than 40% of my country’s territory, only account for 10% of the country’s total. Tibet, which accounts for 1/8 of the country’s territory, has only identified three medium-sized iron mines. The eastern region, which accounts for 40% of the territory, has 60% of the country’s identified resource reserves. The geological conditions for iron ore mineralization in western my country are favorable. Some iron deposits have been discovered (such as the Mengku Iron Ore Deposit in Xinjiang), and large-scale iron ore deposits have also been discovered in the same metallogenic areas in neighboring countries (such as the Atasu large-scale iron ore concentration in Kazakhstan, etc.), and this proportion The overall level of research and exploration in the sections of the mineral belt within my country is low. In recent years, there has been some progress in mineral prospecting in western my country, showing good prospects for finding large-scale iron ores and rich iron ores. For example, the resources of the Nixion-type skarn-type iron ore deposit in the Gangdese metallogenic belt are expected to exceed 10×108t , the magnetite content in the Panlongfeng skarn-type iron deposit in East Kunlun reaches more than 70%, and the prospects are also very good. Prospecting in the deep and car parts of known deposits has also made significant progress. For example, the Jijiping Iron Mine in Sichuan added 2.23×108t of resource reserves in 2008. The exploration depth of the Mengku Iron Mine in Xinjiang used to be about 300m, but now it has been increased to 600m. In 2008, 6100×104 new resource reserves were added, indicating that with the increase of exploration depth, there is great potential for resource reserves to increase.
(4) The detection rate of magnetic anomalies is not high, many magnetic anomalies need to be detected, and the possibility of discovering iron ore deposits is high. According to preliminary calculations, more than 43,000 aeromagnetic anomalies have been discovered across the country, and more than 18,500 anomalies have been inspected/conducted, of which more than 1,600 anomalies have been found to contain iron ore, with an iron ore discovery rate of 8.7%. There are still more than 25,000 low-temperature anomalies that need to be checked (Fan Zhengguo, personal communication). Based on the known mineralization rate of aeromagnetic anomalies detected on the ground, it is estimated that there are still 1,011 aeromagnetic anomalies across the country caused by iron ore.
(5) Ultra-poor magnetite has great prospecting potential. In recent years, the rising prices of iron ore have had a serious impact on my country’s iron ore resources: on the one hand, the mining level of mines has declined, and some identified iron ore resource reserves that originally had no economic significance have become able to be mined and used; On the one hand, some magnetite-containing rocks that were not considered iron ores in the past have become ultra-poor magnetite resources that can be developed and used. The average grade TFe of this part of iron-bearing rocks is generally around 15%, which is lower than the 20% threshold grade for demarcating industrial ore bodies. The useful mineral reserves are mainly magnetite, so it is called ultra-poor magnetite resources (referred to as “ultra-poor magnetite”). Magnetite”): The resource amount of ultra-poor magnetite is very huge. Taking Hebei and Liaoning as examples, the identified resource reserves of ultra-poor magnetite in Hebei Province are 55×108t, and the predicted resource reserves are close to 110×108t; the total ultra-poor magnetite resources in Liaoning Province are estimated to be 107×108t: Darhan Maoming, Inner Mongolia The Wenggongshan iron ore deposit in Anlianhe Banner (3.28×108t) and the Xinglongguan ore section (1.85×108t) in the Yindongshan iron ore area in Gucheng County, Hubei Province are both ultra-poor magnetite (according to the National Mineral Resources Reserves of the Ministry of Land and Resources in 2008 Notice”). Other regions across the countrythis kind of usable ultra-low-grade iron ore resources not listed above is also widely distributed in the region, such as Henan and Shandong.
4. Analysis of iron ore resource guarantee capabilities and guarantee potential
(1) my country’s demand for iron ore resources
my country is in the process of industrialization and urbanization, and the demand for steel, especially steel for construction infrastructure, is relatively large, and there has even been a situation where demand exceeds supply for a certain period of time. In response to the crisis, the Party Central Committee and the State Council have adopted a package of measures to expand domestic demand and promote economic growth. Infrastructure construction and fixed asset investment have grown strongly, and the demand for long products such as heavy rail, rebar, wire rods, and small and medium-sized sections has increased rapidly. This is an expansion of Domestic demand and the temporary reflection of market demand driven by fixed asset investment. In 2008, my country’s crude steel output value reached 5×108t, the production capacity was 6.6×108t, the equipment operating rate was about 76%, and the apparent consumption was about 4.53×108t (according to Chen Bin, Director of the Industrial Coordination Department of the Development and Reform Commission in October 2009 Accepted an exclusive interview with my country Government Network on the 15th). Based on the general rules of economic development and steel consumption, as well as the structural changes in the growth of national steel consumption in recent years, Wang Gao Gao et al. believe that my country’s annual crude steel demand will not exceed 5.5×108t. Therefore, if the operating rate of the existing 6.6×108t capacity equipment reaches more than 85%, the annual output value of crude steel will reach more than 5.6×108t. It can fully meet domestic demand.
If we want to be based in China to ensure the demand for crude steel for iron ore. If my country’s iron ore self-sufficiency rate reaches more than 50%, more than 2.8×108t (50% of 5.6×108t) crude steel needs to be made from domestic iron ore every year. Of the 5×108t crude steel produced in my country in 2008, 2.6×108t (accounting for 52%) was produced from 4.44×108t imported iron ore. Because my country’s iron ore is of low grade, 8.2×108t of domestic iron ore produced 2.4×108t of crude steel in 2008. Based on this, the demand for 2.8×108t of crude steel consumes 9.6×108t of domestic iron ore.
(2) Guaranteed ability to identify iron ore resource reserves
Reserves are the economically recoverable part of basic reserves. They are the quantities that can actually be mined after deducting planning and mining losses. They are numerically consistent with the output value of iron ore. If the ratio between reserves and basic reserves in 2008 is 1:2 (reserves in 2008 were 101.7×108t. Basic reserves were 226.40×108t), the annual output of 9.6×108t of domestic iron ore would require a consumption of basic reserves of 21.3×108t.
By the end of 2008, my country had basic reserves of 226.40×108t. Based on the annual output of 9.6×108t of domestic iron ore and the consumption of basic reserves of 21.3×108t, the static guarantee period of the basic reserves of 226.40×108t is 10.6 years.
By the end of 2008, my country had 397.38×108t of iron ore resources (according to the 2008 “National Mineral Resources Reserve Report” of the Ministry of Land and Resources), of which 22% were temporarily difficult to use and 78% could be used, reaching 310×108t. If investment is increased and these 310×108t resources are converted into basic reserves, the guarantee period can be extended.
More than 80% of my country’s identified resource reserves are distributed in 9 provinces (regions): Liaoning, Sichuan, Hebei, Anhui, Shanxi, Yunnan, Inner Mongolia, Shandong, and Hubei. Except for Yunnan, the others are distributed in existing iron ore production bases. as actual continuing resources.
(3) Guaranteed potential of iron ore resources to be identified
In 2008, the new resource reserves discovered through exploration were 13.93×108t (according to the 2008 “National Mineral Resources Reserves Report” of the Ministry of Land and Resources). If the annual production of 9.6×108t domestic iron ore requires a basic reserve consumption of 21.3×108t, an additional 21.3×108t of iron ore resource reserves need to be explored every year to maintain the existing resource reserves from declining. thus. The increase in identified resource reserves in 2008 is far from meeting the demand for balance of resource reserves.
To increase the number of identified resource reserves, the basis is the size of iron ore resource potential. The most promising type of iron ore deposits in my country is primarily the accumulation-metamorphic type, followed by the magmatic type. The potential of accumulated metamorphic iron ore resources is mainly distributed in the eastern iron ore production base and its vicinity. In recent years, Gongchangling, Yanyanshan and Qiaotou in Liaoning, Erma, Xingshan and Macheng in Hebei, Huyanqingshan in Shanxi, Jining in Shandong, and Henan New developments in iron ore prospecting such as Liancun and Hainan Shilu have shown great prospecting prospects for accumulating metamorphic iron ores. The resource potential of magmatic iron ore is mainly in the Panxi area, such as the prospecting of Jijiping Iron Mine in Sichuan, followed by Damiao Iron Mine in Hebei. In recent years, deep mineral prospecting has also made significant breakthroughs. In addition, the prospecting potential of continental volcanic rock type, skarn type, and marine volcanic rock type iron ore cannot be ignored. New developments in iron ore prospecting such as Nihe in Anhui, Daye in Hubei, and Mengku in Xinjiang indicate that these types of iron ore in my country are Iron ore prospecting has great potential. According to the initial estimates of the “National Mineral Resources Potential Review” project, my country’s iron ore resource potential at a depth of 2000m is more than 1500×108t; according to the initial estimates of the “Crisis Mines” project, the deep and edge iron ore resource potential of my country’s known iron ore areas Around 1000×108t. Therefore, there is a need to increase investment in exploration to convert resource potential into resource reserves.
The level of geological operations in the western region is low, and the Nixiong, Dangqu, Jiaduoling, and other subway mines in Tibet and Xinjiang’s Dimunrak and Qimantage have great prospecting potential and are expected to become backup strategic exploration bases for iron ore resources.
5. Guarantee measures and claims
(1) Strengthen mine management, adopt new mining technologies, and improve recovery rates so that basic reserves can be fully developed and utilized.
(2) Intensify work efforts and conduct pre-feasibility studies or feasibility studies on the identified retained resources. Complete the conversion of resources into basic reserves.
(3) Carry out research on mineral processing technology for refractory iron ore, so that the temporarily difficult-to-use iron ore resource reserves of about 137×108t, accounting for 22% of the total, can be utilized.
(4) Improve the level of exploration operations and evaluate more than 5,000 iron ore points and mineralization points that have not entered the reserve library. A new batch of identified resource reserves was added.
(5) Increase the intensity of prospecting and exploration in the deep and edge areas of known iron ore areas, and explore for new iron ore resource reserves.
(6) Strengthen magnetic anomaly inspections. More than 25,000 unexamined magnetic anomalies, especially promising low-level anomalies, were examined to discover new mineral deposits.
(7) Open up ideas and look for new types of iron ore, such as ultra-poor magnetite.
(1) The geological conditions for iron ore mineralization in my country are favorable. There are complete types of iron ore deposits, with accumulation and metamorphic iron ore and magmatic iron ore having the greatest potential for mineralization. But the grade is lower; the skarn and volcanic rock type iron ores are smaller in scale, but have more rich ores; the accumulation type iron ores are often difficult to process and smelt iron ore, and the weathering and leaching type iron ore has little mineralization potential.
(2) my country’s identified iron ore resources are rich in reserves, most of which are easy-to-select iron ore types and are mostly distributed in and near the eastern iron ore production base. Being able to stay in China and ensure direct sales of iron ore for a long period of time.
(3) my country’s iron ore has huge potential for further prospecting, and it has the potential to ensure direct sales of iron ore resources in the country for a long time.
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