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What Is Magnesium?

Magnesium is a metal element, and its symbol is Mg. In 1808, David used potassium to reduce magnesium oxide to produce magnesium metal. It is a silver-white light alkaline earth metal, chemically active, can react with acid to generate hydrogen, and has a certain degree of ductility and heat dissipation. Magnesium is widely distributed in nature and is one of the essential elements of the human body.

The Application Of Magnesium

It is commonly used as a reducing agent to replace metals such as titanium, zirconium, uranium, and beryllium. Mainly used in the manufacture of light metal alloys, ductile iron, scientific instruments and Grignard reagents, etc. It can also be used to make fireworks, flash powder, magnesium salts, aspirators, flares, etc. The structural characteristics are similar to aluminum, with various uses of light metal, and can be used as alloy materials for aircraft and missiles. However, magnesium is combustible at the ignition point of gasoline, which limits its application.

Daily use

Medical use: treatment of magnesium deficiency and spasms.

Sports use: Inject magnesium compounds a few hours before intense exercise, or after intense exercise to compensate for the loss of magnesium. Gymnasts often apply basic magnesium carbonate to increase friction. In medical treatment: If the magnesium salt is injected too fast, it will cause fever and general malaise.

Metal magnesium can react with most non-metals and acids; it can directly synthesize magnesium hydride with hydrogen under high pressure; magnesium can react with halogenated hydrocarbons to synthesize Grignard reagents, which are widely used in organic synthesis. Magnesium has a clear tendency to form coordination compounds.

Magnesium is an important material in the aviation industry. Magnesium alloys are used in the manufacture of aircraft fuselages and engine parts; magnesium is also used in the manufacture of photographic and optical instruments; magnesium and its alloys have a wide range of non-structural applications; magnesium as a strong reduction It is also used in the production of titanium, zirconium, beryllium, uranium and hafnium.

Pure magnesium has low strength, but magnesium alloy is a good lightweight structural material, widely used in industrial sectors such as space technology, aviation, automobiles, and instrumentation. A supersonic aircraft has about 5% of magnesium alloy components, and a missile generally consumes 100 to 200 kilograms of magnesium alloy. Magnesium is the main component of other alloys (especially aluminum alloys). It can be combined with other elements to strengthen the heat treatment of aluminum alloys; ductile cast iron uses magnesium as a nodulizer; and some metals (such as titanium and zirconium) use magnesium as the production Reducing agent; Magnesium is an indispensable component of incendiary bombs and flares; Magnesium powder is a necessary raw material for festive fireworks; Magnesium is a structural material or packaging material in the nuclear industry; Magnesium fertilizer can promote the absorption and utilization of phosphorus by plants, and magnesium-deficient plants The growth tends to stagnate. Magnesium is a basic material that occupies an important position in people’s lives.

Plant use: Magnesium is mainly found in young and tender organs and tissues, and concentrated in seeds when plants are mature. Magnesium ions can activate various phosphomutases and phosphokinases during photosynthesis and respiration. Similarly, magnesium can also activate the process of DNA and RNA synthesis. Magnesium is one of the synthetic components of chlorophyll. Without magnesium, chlorophyll cannot be synthesized, the veins of the leaves are still green but the veins between the veins turn yellow, sometimes reddish purple. If magnesium deficiency is severe, brown spot necrosis will be formed. It exists in the form of ions or organic compounds in plants. Magnesium is a component of chlorophyll and an activator of many enzymes. It is the main corresponding ion of hydrogen ion in photosynthetic phosphorylation.

Physiological use

Magnesium is the main cation in human cells, concentrated in mitochondria, second only to potassium and phosphorus, and third only to sodium and calcium in the extracellular fluid. It is an essential substance for the basic biochemical reactions of many cells in the body. The total magnesium content of a normal adult body is about 25g, of which 60% to 65% are found in bones and teeth, and 27% are distributed in soft tissues. Magnesium is mainly distributed in cells, and the magnesium in the extracellular fluid does not exceed 1%. Magnesium is an essential substance in the metabolism of calcium, vitamin C, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, etc. It plays an important role in the normal operation of neuromuscular functions and the conversion of blood sugar.

Magnesium is an essential element that participates in the normal life activities and metabolic processes of organisms. Magnesium affects a variety of biological functions of cells: affects the transport of potassium and calcium ions, regulates signal transmission, participates in energy metabolism, protein and nucleic acid synthesis; it can complex negatively charged groups, especially phosphate groups in nucleotides It also plays a role in maintaining the structure and function of the substance; the activation and inhibition of catalytic enzymes and the regulation of cell cycle, cell proliferation and cell differentiation; magnesium is also involved in maintaining the stability of the genome, and is also related to the body’s oxidative stress and tumorigenesis.
Magnesium absorption and metabolism: The total magnesium content of the adult body is about 25g, of which 60% to 65% are found in bones and teeth, and 27% are distributed in soft tissues. The main ingredients in the diet that promote the absorption of magnesium are amino acids, lactose, etc.; the main ingredients that inhibit the absorption of magnesium are excessive phosphorus, oxalic acid, phytic acid, and dietary fiber. A large amount of magnesium ingested by adults is secreted into the intestines from bile, pancreatic juice and intestinal juice, of which 60% to 70% is excreted in feces, and part of it is lost from sweat and shed skin cells.

Magnesium ion is a more abundant positive ion in biological organisms, and its amount ranks fourth after calcium, sodium, and potassium in the whole body; the content of magnesium ions in cells is second only to potassium ions and ranks No. Two people. Whole seeds, unmilled grains, green leafy vegetables, beans and nuts are the most abundant sources of dietary magnesium; fish, meat, milk, and fruits contain lower magnesium content; processed foods are in the process of processing Almost all the magnesium is lost. Creatine hexaphosphate, crude fiber, ethanol, excessive phosphate and calcium ions weaken the absorption of magnesium, which may be due to the reduction of the concentration of magnesium in the lumen.

Magnesium belongs to the human body’s nutrients-one of the mineral elements, and belongs to the macro-element class of minerals. 60-65% of the magnesium in the human body is found in bones and teeth, 27% is found in soft tissues, and intracellular magnesium ions account for only 1%, mostly in the form of active form Mg2+ -ATP.

  • 1. As an enzyme activator, it participates in more than 300 enzymatic reactions. Glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, protein synthesis, nucleic acid metabolism, etc. require magnesium ions to participate.
  • 2. Promote bone formation. Second only to calcium and phosphorus in bones, they are essential elements for the structure and function of bone cells. They play an important role in promoting bone formation and bone regeneration, and maintaining the strength and density of bones and teeth.
  • 3. Regulate neuromuscular excitability. Can inhibit potassium and calcium channels. Magnesium, calcium, and potassium ions work together to maintain neuromuscular excitability. If the blood magnesium is too low or calcium is too low, the excitability is increased; otherwise, it has a sedative effect.
  • 4. Maintain the functions of the gastrointestinal tract and hormones.
  • 5. Magnesium is also an important neurotransmitter, which can relax muscles; supplemented with calcium-containing foods can promote calcium absorption.

Recommended intake

The Chinese Nutrition Society recommends that adult men need about 350 mg of magnesium per day, about 300 mg for adult women, about 450 mg for pregnant women and breastfeeding women, 150 mg for children aged 2 to 3, and 200 mg for 3 to 6 years old. The tolerable maximum intake (UL) is set at 700mg/d.

Magnesium deficiency is clinically manifested as emotional restlessness, irritability, hand and foot twitching, hyperreflexia, etc. Under normal circumstances, due to the regulation of the kidneys, magnesium intoxication will not occur due to the regulation of the kidneys. When kidney function is insufficiency, taking a large amount of magnesium can cause magnesium poisoning, manifested as abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, polydipsia, fatigue and weakness. In severe cases, dyspnea, cyanosis, and dilated pupils may occur.

Magnesium is widely distributed in plants, more in muscles and organs, and less in dairy products. The utilization rate of magnesium in animal foods is high, reaching 30% to 40%, and the utilization rate of magnesium in plant foods is low.

Metabolic absorption

Magnesium in food can be absorbed throughout the intestinal tract, but it is mainly absorbed in the terminal jejunum and ileum. The absorption rate is generally about 30%. It can be absorbed through passive diffusion and energy-consuming active absorption. A large amount of magnesium ingested by healthy adults is secreted into the intestines from bile, pancreatic juice and intestinal juice, of which 60%~70% is excreted in feces, part of which is lost from sweat and shed skin cells, and the rest is excreted in urine, approximately every day 50~120mg, about 1/3~1/2 of the intake.

Lack of performance

Magnesium deficiency can cause a decrease in serum calcium and neuromuscular hyperexcitability; it may have potential effects on vascular function. It has been reported that patients with hypomagnesemia may have atrioventricular premature contractions, atrial fibrillation, and ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation, and half of them have blood pressure rise High; Magnesium plays an important role in the homeostasis of bone minerals. Magnesium deficiency may be a risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis; a few studies have shown that magnesium depletion can lead to insulin resistance.

Abnormal calcium metabolism.

Causes nervous system problems, such as memory loss, neurological disorders, depression, hallucinations, muscle tremors, etc.

Affect the functions of the heart, bones and gastrointestinal tract.

Causes muscle weakness, cramps and other muscle problems.

Treatment measures

In mild magnesium deficiency, magnesium can be supplemented by diet or oral administration, magnesium oxide or magnesium hydroxide can be given, and aluminum hydroxide gel can be used in combination with aluminum hydroxide to avoid diarrhea. When oral administration cannot tolerate or cannot be absorbed, intramuscular injection of magnesium can be used, generally 20% to 50% magnesium sulfate. When giving magnesium intravenously, attention should be paid to the occurrence of acute magnesium poisoning to avoid cardiac arrest. Therefore, avoid giving too much or too fast magnesium. In case of magnesium poisoning, inject calcium gluconate or calcium chloride to combat it.

Industrial Application

Magnesium is one of the lightest structural metal materials, and it has the advantages of high specific strength and specific rigidity, good damping and machinability, and easy recycling. Magnesium alloys are used in the automobile industry at home and abroad to reduce weight, save energy, reduce pollution, and improve the environment. The fuel consumption of automobiles in developed countries will eventually reach the 3L target. Magnesium for automobiles in Europe accounts for 14% of the total magnesium consumption. It is expected to increase at a rate of 15-20% in the future, and it will reach 200,000 tons in 2005.

Compared with plastic, magnesium alloy has light weight, high specific strength, good vibration damping, good thermal fatigue performance, not easy to age, good thermal conductivity, strong electromagnetic shielding ability, very good die-casting process performance, and is especially easy to recycle And other advantages, it is a new generation of high-performance structural materials that replace steel, aluminum alloy and engineering plastics. In order to adapt to the development trend of high integration, thinness and miniaturization of electronics and communication devices, magnesium alloys are ideal for transportation, electronic information, communications, computers, audio-visual equipment, portable tools, motors, forestry, textiles, nuclear power plants and other product shells. material. Developed countries attach great importance to the development and application of magnesium alloys, especially in the application of portable electronic products such as auto parts and notebook computers. The annual growth rate is 20%, which is very eye-catching and the development trend is amazing.

Magnesium metal is the main alloying element in aluminum alloys, and the world’s annual demand is about 150,000 tons. In 2000, China’s aluminum alloy production was 2.9 million tons, and magnesium was used as an alloying element, which required about 10,100 tons per year.

With the increasing demand for high-strength low-sulfur steel in the automotive industry, oil and natural gas pipelines, offshore drilling platforms, bridge construction and other fields, China’s Anshan Iron and Steel, Baosteel, Wuhan Iron and Steel, Benxi Iron and Steel, Baotou Iron and Steel, Panzhihua Iron and Steel, Shougang and other steel plants have already Deep desulfurization with magnesium powder to obtain high-quality steel with good results. Magnesium powder has a potential market for steel desulfurization. In addition, magnesium powder is also used to manufacture chemical products, medicines, fireworks, signals, flares and other materials, metal reducing agents, paint coatings, welding wires, and nodulizers for ductile iron.

As one of the effective methods to prevent metal corrosion, magnesium sacrificial anodes can be widely used in underground iron pipelines, petroleum pipelines, storage tanks, offshore installations, equipment, and civil applications.

Magnesium alloy profiles and pipes are used as bicycle racks, wheelchairs, rehabilitation and medical equipment, etc.

Magnesium can burn in the air. Sparks are very beautiful when burning. Therefore, a certain amount of magnesium powder is usually mixed in fireworks to achieve beautiful effects.

Modern warfare requires the military to be capable of long-distance and rapid deployment, and requires lightweight weapons and equipment. A large number of light metal materials will be used in hand-held weapons, armored combat vehicles, transport vehicles, and aviation-guided weapons. Lightweight is an important direction to improve the combat performance of weapons and equipment. The light weight of magnesium determines that magnesium alloy is an indispensable structural material for the production of spacecraft, military aircraft, missiles, highly maneuverable combat vehicles, and ships. Therefore, vigorously developing the application range of magnesium alloy is the need of national defense modernization.

Industrial development: Before the 1950s, the development of magnesium was dependent on the military industry. After the 1960s, the development of the application of metallic magnesium in the civil market and space technology promoted the balanced growth of magnesium. In recent years, as the application of magnesium alloys in transportation, electronics and communications has grown, the world’s magnesium consumption has increased year by year and has grown rapidly. There are 10 countries in the world (except China), namely the United States, Canada, Norway, Russia, France, Italy, the former Yugoslavia, Brazil, India, and North Korea that produce magnesium metal. In 2004, the world’s mining volume of magnesium metal was 584,000 tons, of which China was 426,000 tons, Canada was 54,000 tons, Russia was 50,000 tons, Israel was 28,000 tons, and Kazakhstan was 18,000 tons.

Since the 1990s, the market economy has stimulated the development of China’s magnesium industry. In the 10 years of the 1990s, China’s primary magnesium output increased by 37 times, especially from 1995 to 2000, the average annual growth rate was 15.84%, which was much higher than the growth rate of the Western world. China has become the world’s largest producer and exporter of primary magnesium.

From January to December 2006, the national total output of magnesium metal was 613084.94 tons, a year-on-year increase of 32.23%;

From January to December 2007, the national total output of magnesium (magnesium) was 670,130.87 tons, a year-on-year increase of 24.12%; from January to October 2008, the national total output of magnesium (magnesium) was 539498.36 tons, a year-on-year increase of 6.59%.

Brief History Of Magnesium Discovery

The first to confirm that magnesium is an element was Joseph Black, in Edinburgh (UK) in 1755. He distinguished the bitter soil (magnesium oxide, MgO) in lime (calcium oxide, CaO), both of which were prepared by heating similar to carbonate, magnesite and limestone. Another type of magnesium ore is called sepiolite (magnesium silicate), which was reported by Thomas Henry in 1799. He said that this ore is more used to make pipes in Turkey.

The impure magnesium metal was first produced in 1792 by Anton Rupprecht, who heated a mixture of bitter soil and charcoal. Pure but very small amount of metallic magnesium was produced by Humphry Davy electrolytic magnesium oxide in 1808. However, it was the French scientist Antoine-Alexandre-Brutus Bussy who used the reaction of magnesium chloride and potassium to produce a considerable amount of metallic magnesium in 1831, after which he began to study its properties.

Many centuries ago, the ancient Romans believed that “magnesia” (a white magnesium salt produced in the Magnesia region of Greece, named after magnesium) could cure many diseases. Until 1808, the British chemist David used the method of electrolytic bitter soil (containing magnesium) to separate elemental magnesium. In the early 1930s, E·V·McCollum and his colleagues used rats and dogs as experimental animals for the first time to systematically observe the response to magnesium deficiency. In 1934, a few clinical reports of magnesium deficiency in a small number of people on the basis of different diseases were published for the first time. Proved that magnesium is an essential element of the human body.

Magnesium is one of the ten most widely distributed elements in nature (magnesium is the eighth most abundant element in the earth’s crust, accounting for about 2% of the mass, and also the ninth most common element in the universe), but because it is not easy to obtain The compound is reduced to elemental state, so it has not been discovered for a long time.

For a long time, chemists regarded the magnesium oxide bitter soil obtained by roasting magnesite containing magnesium carbonate as an indivisible substance. It is listed in the table of elements published by Lavoisier in 1789. In 1808, after David successfully made calcium, he used the same method to make magnesium metal again. Since then, magnesium has been identified as an element and named magnesium, the symbol of the element is Mg. Magnesium comes from Magnesia, the Greek city of Magnesia. Because magnesium oxide is produced near this city, it is called magnesia alba, which is white magnesium oxide, and the element symbol is Mg. Magnesium has an atomic number of 12 and an atomic weight of 24.3. It is a typical divalent metal and has the common characteristics of metals. Since the nature of magnesium oxide is between “alkaline” and “earth” like calcium, it is called alkaline earth metal.

The Physical Properties Of Magnesium

Appearance and properties: silver-white solid with metallic luster.

Solubility: insoluble in water, lye, soluble in acid.

Relative density (water = 1)
Heat of combustion (kJ/mol)
Ignition temperature (℃)

The Chemical Properties Of Magnesium

It has relatively strong reducibility, can react with boiling water to release hydrogen, and can produce dazzling white light when burned. Magnesium does not interact with fluoride, hydrofluoric acid and chromic acid, and is not corroded by caustic alkali, but it is very easy to dissolve in organic In inorganic acids, magnesium can directly combine with nitrogen, sulfur and halogens. Organic chemicals including hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alcohols, phenols, amines, fats and most oils have only a slight or no effect on magnesium. . However, it reacts more violently with halogenated hydrocarbons under anhydrous conditions (generating Grignard reagents). Magnesium can react with carbon dioxide. Therefore, the combustion of magnesium cannot be extinguished with carbon dioxide fire extinguishers. Magnesium can react with N2 and O2, so when magnesium burns in the air, it burns violently and emits dazzling white light, emits heat, and generates a white solid. The change in vinegar is the rapid emergence of bubbles, floating on the surface of the vinegar, and gradually disappearing. Some fireworks and flares contain magnesium powder, which makes use of the dazzling white light of magnesium burning in the air. The valence of magnesium in chemical reactions is usually +2.

The Isotope Of Magnesium

A total of 22 magnesium isotopes have been found, including magnesium 19 to magnesium 40, of which only magnesium-24, magnesium-25, and magnesium-26 are naturally occurring and stable, and other magnesium isotopes are all radioactive.

symbol Proton neutron Quality (u) half life Nuclear spin Relative abundance Relative abundance change
90.8(24) ms
122(2) ms
3.8755(12) s
11.317(11) s
9.458(12) min
20.915(9) h
1.30(12) s
335(17) ms
230(20) ms
86(5) ms
90.5(16) ms
20(10) ms
70(40) ms
3.9(13) ms
40# ms [>260 ns]
1# ms [>260 ns]
1# ms

Remarks: The data marked with # means that it has not been proved by experiments and is just a theoretical speculation, and the data enclosed in parentheses represents the uncertainty of the data.

Magnesium belongs to the IIA (Group II) alkaline earth metal elements on the periodic table. Magnesium metal is a silver-white metal, hard and slightly malleable. Magnesium has a low density and a high ionization tendency.

The Precautions Of Magnesium

First aid measures: Skin contact: Take off contaminated clothing, and rinse the skin thoroughly with soap and water. Seek medical attention if you feel unwell.

Eye contact: Lift the eyelid and rinse with running water or normal saline. Seek medical attention if you feel unwell.

Inhalation: quickly leave the scene to a place with fresh air. Keep the airway unobstructed. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Breathing and heartbeat stop, immediately perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Seek medical attention.

Ingestion: Drink enough warm water to induce vomiting. Seek medical attention.

Fire-fighting measures: Dangerous characteristics: flammable, it produces strong white light and emits high heat when burned. When it meets with water or moisture, it reacts violently and releases hydrogen, a large amount of heat is released, causing combustion or explosion. It reacts violently with chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorus, arsenic, and oxidants, causing burning and explosion hazards. Powder and air can form an explosive mixture. When it reaches a certain concentration, it will explode when it encounters sparks.

Hazardous combustion products: magnesium oxide.

  • Fire fighting method: firefighters must wear air breathing apparatus and full body fire-proof and gas-proof clothing, and put out the fire in the upwind direction. Move the container from the fire scene to an open place as much as possible. Spray water to keep the fire container cool until the end of the fire extinguishing. It is strictly prohibited to use water, foam and carbon dioxide to fight the fire. The eyes and skin must be protected during rescue, so as not to burn the body by flying flaming particles and the eyesight from the magnesium light.
  • Emergency treatment: Isolate the leaked contaminated area and restrict access. Eliminate all ignition sources. It is recommended that emergency response personnel wear dust masks, dust masks, and anti-static clothing. Do not touch or cross the spill. Cut off the source of leakage as much as possible. Water treatment is strictly prohibited. Small amount of leakage: Cover the leakage with dry sand or other non-combustible materials, and then cover with a plastic sheet to reduce scattering and avoid rain. Powder leakage: Cover the leakage with plastic cloth or canvas to reduce scattering and keep it dry. Clear under the guidance of experts.
  • Detection method: flame atomic absorption spectrometry
  • Engineering control: airtight operation. Provide safety shower and eyewash equipment.
  • Respiratory protection: filter-type dust-proof respirators should be worn during operation. Wear an air respirator when necessary.
  • Eye protection: wear chemical safety glasses.
  • Body protection: wear anti-static overalls.
  • Hand protection: Wear protective gloves for general work.
  • Other protection: Smoking is strictly prohibited at the work site. Maintain good hygiene.
  • Stability: stable
  • Contraindications: acids, acid chlorides, halogens (chlorine, bromine, iodine), strong oxidants, chlorinated hydrocarbons, water, oxygen, sulfur, phosphorus, arsenic.
  • Avoid contact conditions: humid air.
  • Polymerization hazard: no polymerization
  • Acute toxicity: corrosive and irritating.
  • Other harmful effects: The substance may be harmful to the environment, it is recommended not to let it enter the environment.
  • Nature of waste: hazardous waste
  • Disposal methods: Refer to relevant national and local regulations before disposal. If possible, recycle.
  • Precautions for disposal: Refer to relevant national and local regulations before disposal.
  • Dangerous regulation number: 41502
  • UN Number: 1869
  • Packaging mark: flammable solid
  • Packing category: Type Ⅱ packing
  • Packing method: plastic bag or double-layer kraft paper bag with full or middle opening steel drum (steel plate thickness 0.75 mm, net weight per drum not exceeding 100 kg); plastic bag or double-layer kraft paper bag with full or middle opening steel drum (steel plate 0.5 mm thick, net weight per barrel not exceeding 50 kg); metal barrels (cans) or plastic barrels with lattice boxes; screw-top glass bottles, iron-capped glass bottles, plastic bottles or metal barrels (cans) outside ordinary wooden boxes .
  • Transportation precautions: During transportation, the transportation vehicle should be equipped with corresponding types and quantities of fire-fighting equipment and leakage emergency treatment equipment. The exhaust pipe of the vehicle carrying the product must have a fire arrester. During transportation, ensure that the container does not leak, collapse, fall, or be damaged. Mixed shipment and transportation with oxidants, acids, halogens, chlorinated hydrocarbons, edible chemicals, etc. are strictly prohibited. Avoid exposure to the sun, rain, and high temperature during transportation. Stay away from fire and heat sources during stopovers. Transportation vehicles and ships must be dry and have good rainproof facilities. After the vehicle is transported, it should be thoroughly cleaned. It is forbidden to drop off during railway transportation.
  • Operation precautions: strengthen local exhaust. Operators must undergo special training and strictly abide by the operating procedures. It is recommended that operators wear self-priming filter dust masks, chemical safety glasses, and anti-static overalls. Keep away from fire and heat sources, and smoking is strictly prohibited in the workplace. Use explosion-proof ventilation systems and equipment. Avoid generating dust. Avoid contact with oxidants, acids, halogens, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Particular attention should be paid to avoid contact with water. Operate and dispose in nitrogen. When handling, load and unload with care to prevent damage to packaging and containers. Equipped with corresponding types and quantities of fire-fighting equipment and leakage emergency treatment equipment. Empty containers may be harmful residues.
  • Precautions for storage: Store in a cool, dry, and well-ventilated special warehouse, away from fire and heat sources. The storage temperature does not exceed 32℃, and the relative humidity does not exceed 75%. The packaging is required to be sealed and not in contact with air. It should be stored separately from oxidants, acids, halogens, chlorinated hydrocarbons, etc., and avoid mixed storage. Use explosion-proof lighting and ventilation facilities. It is forbidden to use mechanical equipment and tools that are prone to sparks. The storage area should be equipped with suitable materials to contain the leakage.

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