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Description of common energy-saving technologies

Posted by: steel world 2023-10-27 Comments Off on Description of common energy-saving technologies

Electronic power-saving technology refers to the methods and methods that apply power electronics technology and microelectronics technology to significantly reduce the power consumption in the production process of products or the power consumption of the products themselves. The promotion and application of silicon and thyristor rectifier technology in my country has basically eliminated motor generator sets and arc rectifiers in our country. At the same time, our country’s rectifier products have entered the era of high voltage, high power, and low loss. Before 2000, the promotion and application of electronic voltage regulation, speed regulation technology and electronic control technology should be accelerated. ​

(1) Electronic voltage regulation and speed regulation technology. The use of this technology can achieve optimal matching of electromechanical equipment loads, achieve economical operation, and reduce power consumption. It mainly promotes cascade speed regulation of wound asynchronous motors, frequency conversion adjustment of asynchronous motors, light-load power savers for motors, etc. The petroleum industry has adopted variable frequency speed regulation for water injection and oil transfer pumps in oil fields, with a cumulative rollout of more than 50,000 kilowatts, saving up to 100 million kilowatt hours of electricity a year. The textile industry uses variable frequency speed regulation for air conditioners, saving electricity by 30-60%. Applying this technology to fans and water pumps currently in use across the country is estimated to save 27 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity a year.
(2) Microelectronic control technology. Using electronic microprocessor, after programming, the production process parameters and operation process can be automatically controlled. This technology has been widely used abroad, and has also been demonstrated and applied domestically in machine tool processing, coal-fired boilers, reactive power compensation, station lighting, battery charging, electric furnace steel smelting, electrolytic aluminum production, synthetic production, etc., and has achieved improvements in product output, Ensure product quality, reduce costs, reduce labor intensity, oil field and energy. Fushun Aluminum Plant adopts microcomputer control technology in the electrolytic cell, which reduces the power consumption per ton of aluminum by 100 to 200 kilowatt hours, and the investment payback period is less than one and a half years.
Transformer energy saving
Transformers are the main energy-consuming equipment in the process of electricity production and use. In the process of power generation, supply and consumption, the power loss of transformers is very large. The country’s annual power loss from transformers reaches 36 billion kilowatt hours, and the implementation of transformer power-saving technology is of great significance.
Economic operation of transformers refers to choosing a reasonable operation mode, improving operating technical conditions, and adjusting loads under the same transmission conditions, so that the transformer can operate with the highest efficiency and lowest power consumption. A certain petrochemical plant has two main transformers (2×20,000KVA). According to the current power grid output status, through analysis and calculation, and adjustment according to the economic operation mode, the power loss can be reduced by 99,000 kilowatt hours in one month.
Transformer technical transformation refers to the transformation of old-fashioned high-loss transformers in operation using new technologies and new materials to make them reach or approach the level of S7 and S9 series low-loss transformers. Currently, the total capacity of high-loss transformers in service in China is about 120 million VA, if all transformers are transformed into low-loss transformers, 376,000 kilowatts of electricity can be saved, and 4.824 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity can be saved per year.
Low-loss amorphous alloy transformer is a new type of energy-saving transformer developed in the United States in the early 1980s. The so-called “amorphous alloy” means that the molten alloy material is rapidly cooled and solidified before it has time to crystallize. This alloy material has an irregular atomic arrangement like glass and has no crystal structure characterized by metal. It is a material completely different from the structure of traditional silicon steel sheets. This alloy contains 80% iron, 20% silicon and boron, and has unusual properties. Strength, hardness, toughness and strong corrosion resistance as well as unique characteristics, such as low iron loss, high magnetic permeability, high resistivity, etc. When the magnetic density is the same, the core loss of amorphous alloy transformer is only 25-35% of the loss of traditional silicon steel sheet transformer. In 1993, my country added 340,000 new transformers. Such as amorphous alloy materials (the current maximum capacity of transformers made of this material is 28.32 billion kilowatts.
Motor energy saving
Motors are power equipment used in industrial and agricultural production and daily life, and are widely owned by society. Since my country’s motor manufacturing industry is relatively backward compared to foreign countries, not only the performance indicators of the motor itself lag behind those of advanced countries, but also the capacity of the motors varies greatly, and there is little research on the development of special motors. Therefore, the characteristics of the electric motor and the production machinery do not match, and the phenomenon of “big horse and small cart” is quite common. Developing special energy-saving motors has great energy-saving potential.
The textile industry has combined the cnc machining mechanical characteristics of looms to develop a rare earth permanent magnet synchronous motor specifically for looms. It has been tried out in cotton textile factories in Wuxi, Shanghai, Shijiazhuang and other countries. It saves 7.5%-11.5% of electricity compared with the original asynchronous motor. At the same time, , the power factor is also increased from the original 0.75 to 0.95, the motor temperature rise is reduced by 5-8 degrees Celsius, the air conditioning load is reduced, and the economic benefits and energy-saving effects are very obvious. Used in all 1.1 million looms across the country, it can save 440 million kilowatt hours of electricity a year.
In view of the special load characteristics of the beam pumping unit, the petroleum industry has developed an ultra-high slip motor (YccH type) specifically for the pumping unit. The power saving rate reaches 36%, and it can also prevent the motor and transformer from burning out. decrease very much. Promoting this measure to 36,000 pumping units across the country can save 800 million kilowatt-hours of electricity a year.
Electric heating energy saving
Electric heating refers to the use of electricity for metal heat treatment and low-temperature baking. Electric heating furnaces are widely used and have a large number of owners. Due to the backward thermal design of the currently used electric heating furnaces, the poor performance of the insulation materials used, and the unreasonable heating mechanism, the heat dissipated from the surface of the electric furnace is large and the thermal efficiency of the furnace is low. According to electricity balance test statistics from various places, the heat lost from the surface of heat treatment electric furnaces accounts for about 25% to 30%. It is imperative to accelerate the transformation and update of electric heating furnaces.
(1) For low-temperature heating furnaces used for dehydration, drying, and curing, the use of high-intensity infrared heating technology should be promoted, the thermal design should be improved, and thermal insulation materials with good performance should be selected. Generally, 50% of electricity can be saved. According to the existing Calculating a 4 million kilowatt low-temperature heating furnace, if this technology is adopted, 8-10 billion kilowatt hours of electricity can be saved a year.
(2) The use of heat-resistant and insulating polymullite fiber should be promoted in metal heat treatment electric furnaces. The new technology of air insulation interlayer and the new technology of direct spraying of refractory fibers should be used to technologically transform old electric furnaces, which can save 40% of electricity.
Energy storage and energy saving
With the development of industrial modernization and the improvement of people’s living standards, air conditioners consume more and more electricity. How to save electricity for air-conditioning refrigeration or transfer refrigeration to low-peak electricity consumption at night, and store the cold energy produced at night for use during peak hours during the day. Our country is a country with tight power supply, but there is more than enough power during the nighttime lows. Therefore, shifting air conditioners from peak power consumption to low valley power consumption can not only alleviate peak power shortages, but also save electricity by taking advantage of the favorable factors of low night temperatures and low cooling unit consumption.
The air-conditioning cold storage load-regulating and energy-saving technology is suitable for central air-conditioning systems in hotels, restaurants, etc. It is also suitable for units that require chilled water such as textiles and pharmaceuticals, office buildings, movie theaters, and other units that do not use cooling all day long, and for load adjustment to avoid peaks. Better results.
Cold storage or water storage air-conditioning systems have been popularized and applied abroad for more than ten years, with remarkable energy-saving results and mature technology. Since the early 1990s, our country has begun research and development on cold storage and energy-saving technology and has built a number of demonstration projects. The water storage air-conditioning renovation project of Xinbeijiang Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. in Qingyuan, Guangdong Province was put into operation on May 20, 1992. According to actual measurements, the refrigeration compressor was stopped at the peak of the power grid, reducing electricity consumption by 246 kilowatts and reducing the peak power of the air conditioner by 2/2. 3. The power saving rate of cold storage is 24.7%, and the payback period of the renovation investment is 1.54 years. The power-saving benefits and economic benefits of the enterprise are very significant.
The air-conditioning electricity consumption of hotels and restaurants accounts for 40-60% of their total electricity consumption. At present, there are 2,354 foreign-related hotels in China, most of which are equipped with central air-conditioning systems. If the existing air-conditioning system is modified using cold storage and energy-saving technology, it is estimated that the peak power consumption may be reduced by more than one million kilowatts. Textiles, pharmaceuticals, office buildings, and theaters Cooling storage technology can also be used in air-conditioning systems in stadiums, shopping malls, and the electronics industry, and the effects of peak shaving and valley filling and electricity saving are even more impressive.
Fans and other energy-saving
Fans and pumps are a kind of general-purpose machinery and are widely owned across the country. According to incomplete statistics in 1989, there were 7 million wind turbines of various types in the country, with a total supporting power of 110 million watts. The annual electricity consumption of fans and pumps accounts for about 1/3 of the country’s total electricity consumption. Due to the poor design and manufacturing performance of domestic fans and pumps, unreasonable matching, and low level of operation and maintenance, compared with the advanced foreign level, the actual operating efficiency of fans is 5-20% lower, and the operating efficiency of pumps is 10-30% lower. . It is estimated that more than 20 billion kilowatt hours of electricity will be consumed per year due to this.
In 1992, the coal system upgraded 36 main fans (capacity 19,000 kilowatts) and 105 main drainage pumps (capacity 46,000 kilowatts), and cleaned 21 kilometers of drainage pipelines. After the transformation, the operating efficiency of the fan has been increased by 8-16%, the operating efficiency of the water pump has been increased by 16-20%, and 47.18 million kilowatt-hours of electricity can be saved in a year. Huangdao Power Plant has transformed more than 40 DG500-180 water supply pumps in the plant, improving operating efficiency by 10 to 12% and saving an average of 2.5 million kilowatt hours of electricity annually.
High efficiency and energy saving lighting
High-efficiency energy-saving lamps refer to electric light sources with high luminous efficiency. The energy-saving lamps promoted in our country in recent years include: rare earth fluorescent lamps, metal halide lamps, high-pressure sodium lamps, twisted-wire incandescent lamps, etc. The luminous flux of an 11-watt rare earth fluorescent lamp is equivalent to the luminous flux emitted by a 60-watt incandescent lamp. It is a light source promoted in domestic households, shops, hotels, restaurants and other places. Promote the use of dysprosium lamps, high-pressure sodium lamps, and metal halide lamps in roads, squares, factories, workshops and other places. By 2000, for example, China’s urban residents and some rural residents will widely use rare earth fluorescent lamps. At the same time, industrial and mining enterprises, hotels, restaurants, shopping malls, roads, ports, etc. will also use various high-efficiency energy-saving lamps, saving 40 billion kilowatts of lighting electricity a year. hours or more.

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