There are many prosperous big cities in the world that are rising close to the sea. In addition to land and air transportation, busy and orderly ports are a microcosm of the modernization of these cities.
The port is an important hub for transportation in coastal cities. Thousands of passengers get on and off the passenger ship every day, and countless goods are loaded and unloaded here. The modern port stands with many huge cranes. They are the most important facilities in the port. Because the goods with a total trade volume of more than 4/5 of the world are transported by sea-going vessels, many large machinery and containers must pass through the port. The sea channel is used for transportation, and the cranes of various functions can easily carry the cargo onto the huge wheel or hoist it to the truck.
At present, most of the ports around the world are divided into general port and private port. Two types of general ports can be used to collect all kinds of goods. The special port is equipped with some special cargo handling and handling facilities. For example, the container port is not loaded and unloaded. goods.
On the highways of modern cities, you can often see some big trucks with a huge rectangular iron box behind them; on some docks, these large iron boxes are often stacked neatly and hoisted by giant cranes. freighter. What is the use of these big iron boxes?
These large iron boxes are called containers, and the outer casing is made of steel. It is designed to concentrate on the shipment of goods that are easily crushed or deformed during transportation. Containers are available in internationally sized sizes, typically 6.096 meters long and 2.438 meters wide and high. This is due to the fact that in the United States, which was the first to develop container transportation, the maximum width allowed by its trucks was 2.438 meters, which was gradually adopted by various countries. In addition to this standard specification, there are also very large containers up to 9.14 meters and 12.2 meters.
The emergence of containers has greatly improved the efficiency of the transportation of goods, which can bring huge economic benefits. According to statistics, compared with cargo ships of the same displacement, container ships will increase their annual transportation capacity by six times. Under normal circumstances, it takes 3 minutes for a container to be loaded onto the ship. Each standard container can carry 20 to 30 tons of cargo, so it can load 400 to 600 tons per hour. It is loaded in the traditional “bulk” way. It can only load about 35 tons, and the efficiency difference between the two is very different.
As early as the beginning of the 19th century, some people envisaged the use of containers to improve transportation efficiency, but this desire was not realized until around the 1950s. Why is this? Originally, the development of container transportation involved many related facilities and equipment, such as the need to have large transport vehicles capable of carrying containers; after the containers were transported to the docks, there should be a wide and sturdy space for stacking, and special Heavy equipment to hoist and carry; special container transport ship is different from ordinary cargo ship, the hull needs to be particularly large, the deck size is also designed to be suitable for container placement, and many container ships also have special equipment such as cabins and large cranes that are easy to lift and lower.
It can be seen that container transportation has been gradually developed on the basis of the great development of the automobile industry, the lifting machinery industry and the shipbuilding industry. Moreover, container transportation investment is very large, and it is necessary to have a large-scale advanced transportation network and special container transportation suitable for long-distance cargo transportation, especially for intercontinental freight transportation. Therefore, shipping is the main method of container transportation. Through the formation of container fleets, re-exports are realized on a global scale.
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